Only "ALLAH" is free from fault
And mankind make mistake.
Feedbacks from readers are welcome, particularly
Concerning any errors found in this book.
The compiler will be pleased to receive any comments,
Or suggestion for improvement.
Primary lesson of tajweed
DEFINITION OF “TAJWEED"
The word "Tajweed", in its literal sense, means to beautiful or to accomplish accurately. According to its terminology, "Tajweed" is a subject matter in which the Arabic letters MAKHRAJ, SIFAT, and other qualities are thoroughly discussed.
Theme of Tajweed: The theme or main focus of "TAJWEED" is the verses of the HOLY AL-QURAN.
Objective of Tajweed: The objective of "TAJWEED" is to give a letter it's legitimate due and follow the grammatical rules accurately that take place while the letters of the HOLY AL-QURAN sit in a side by side such as MADH, GUNNAH, PUR, BARIK, and so on.
The main purpose of Tajweed: The main purpose of "TAJWEED" is to control the tongue lest it should extend or shorten anything ungrammatical while reciting the HOLY AL-QURAN. Therefore one should study "TAJWEED" to avoid illegitimate phonologically addition or omission while reciting the HOLY AL-QURAN.
Benefit of studying Tajweed: To be blessed by "ALLAH" in this world and in the world hereafter (Akhirat). For those who learn "TAJWEED", their reword lies with "ALLAH” and “ALLAH alone.
Law for Tajweed: To study "TAJWEED" is "FORD-e- KEFAYA" and to act on account of it is "FARD-e- AYIN" (mandatory) for all adult.
TANWIN: (ين تنؤ):
Double zobor ( ً ), Double jer ( ٍ ), Double pesh ( ٌ ) are called “tanwin”.
MUSHADDAA: (مشدد ):
An Arabic letter with `Tashdid’ ( ّ ) that is with double accent is called `Mushaddad’ for example – اِنَّ
MEEM-E- MUSHODDOD AND NOON-E- MUSHODDOD (مُشَدَّدْ نُوْنِ مُشَدَّدْ مِيْمِ):
The Arabic letter noon (ن) and meem with tashahud are to be read with gunnah.
According to the qari (person who is speedball trained in the reading of the Quran with proper pronunciation from its actual place) the reading of Meem-e- mushoddad and noon -e- mushoddad with gunnah is “wajib” وَجِبْ this type of gunnah is wajib gunnah.
Example of Meem-e- mushoddad: ثُمَّ - عَمَّ – مِمَّ
Example of Noon-e- mushoddad: الَّذِيْنَ اِنَّ - جَنَّتٍ - خَنَّاسٍ
MEASURMENT OF GUNNAH:
Gunnah is to be made one Alif or two Horkats long. Horkats: its meaning is the time that is required either in closing an open finger or opening closed finger with medium force is called a Harkat two Horkat makes one Alif.
What is the madh? Madh means long or to make long (to lengthen the sound of a letter). To lengthen the sound of the letter of madh is called madh there are three letters of madh.
1. If the Arabic; Letter wao (و) is sakin and if its previous letter is with pesh then this Wao (و) is called the letter of madh.
2. If the Arabic; Letter alif (ا) is sakin and if its previous letter is with zobor then this Alif (ا) is called the letter of madh.
3. If the Arabic; Letter ya (ي) is sakin and if its previous letter is with zer then this Ya (ي) is called the letter of madh. Here is the example where the three letters of madh have appeared (have come). نُوْحِيْهَا
some Sakin letters when pronounced from there place of pronunciation get a sudden and thus makes a particular sound which is called Qalqalah (قَلْقَلَهْ) to correctly pronounced Qalaqlah the letter should be emphasized and bounced off the lips or tongue, as if there were an invisible Shad.
There are five letters of Qalqalah (قَلْقَلَهْ): ق - ط - ب - ج - د
these five letters when written together becomes جَدٍّ قُطْبُ when any one of these letters becomes Sakin then it becomes Qalqalah.
THERE ARE TWO KIND OF QALQALAH ( قَلْقَلَهْ ):
1. Qalqalah-e- Sugra (صُغْرَئ قَلْقَلَهْ)
2. Qalqala-e- Kubra (كُبْرَئ قَلْقَلَهْ)
1. QALQALAH-E- SUGRA (صُغْرَئ قَلْقَلَهْ): that is small Qalqalah.
For example: يَقْطَعُوْن -- يَقْطَعُوْن
2. QALQALAH-E- KUBRA (كُبْرَئ قَلْقَلَهْ): That is big Qalqalah. If any one of the letters of Qalqalah becomes Sakin at the end of the word for the cause of Waqf (وَقْف) then it is called Qalqala-e- Kubra.
For example: اَمْشَاج -- صِرَاط – خَلَائِقْ
WHEN THE ARABIC LETTER "LAAM" (ل) SOUND HEAVY AND WHEN IT BECOMES THIN "PUR" AND "BARIK"
If in the previous letter of the word "ALLAH” الله there is either "Pesh" Or ‘Zobor then the letter 'Laam'(ل) of the word ALLAH الله will become heavy.
For example: يَعْلَمْهُ الله - عَبْدُالله – تُاالله
Again if in the previous letter of the word “ALLAH" “الله” there is on Zer then the sound of the Arabic letter Laam'(ل) will be thin.
For example: بِسْمِ الله - لِله – بِذِكْرِالله
NOON-E- SAKIN (كن سا نؤن):
(The Arabic letter noon (ن) without any vowel sing or under it).
The Arabic letter noon (ن) with zojom is called Noon- e- sakin. There are four types of Noon-e- Sakin. These are:
Izhar make to make clear. That is to pronounce any Arabic letter clearly is called Izhar.If any of these Arabic letter come after Noon- e- sakin or Tanwin,Than the Noon- e- sakin or Tanwin, should be read with izhar. This Noon- e- sakin or Tanwin should be read without making it gunna. This is called izhar e haqiqi (حقيقي اظها ر ).
There are six letters of Izhar. They are
غ ـ ع ـ خ ـ ح ـ ه ـ ء
Some of the examples of appearance of the letter (Horf) of izhar after the Noon- e- sakin are given below.
اَمَنَ مَنْ - هَادِ مِنْ - يْدٍ حَدِ مِنْ - خَيْرٍ مِنْ - اَنْعَمْتُ - يَنْهُؤْنَ - اَلْمُنْخَنِقَهُ
There of the examples of the horf e izhar coming after "tanwin".
اَلِيْمٌ بٌ عَذَا - هَادٍ فٍ جُرُ - حَكِيْمٌ عَلِيْمٌ - خَبِيْرٌ عَلِيْمٌ - عَلِيْمٌ سَمِيْعٌ
Note: These six Arabic letters of izhar are pronounced from the wind pipe Such as these are called huruf -e- holqi.
2. Ikhfa (اخفاء):
The meaning of the Arabic word ikhfa is to conceal. To pronounce any letters either making it concealed or pushida is called ikhafa.
There are 15 letters of ikhafa, they are:
ك - ق - ف - ظ - ط - ض - ص - ش - س - ز - ذ - د - ج - ث - ت
If any one of these 15 letters comes to after noon e sakin or tanwin , then the noon e sakin or the tanwin should not be read with ikhfa.
That means this Noon- e- sakin or Tanwin should be pronounce from its actual place of pronunciation (makhraj). Rather it should be pronounce from in between the izhar and idhgam from the nasal cavity (khaishum).
Some of examples where the letter of ikhfa comes after the noon -e- sakin or the tanwin:
1. Following the examples where the all ikhfa letters has come after noon-e- sakin or tanwin.
بَا تَ مَنْ - ثَمَرَاةٍ مَنْ - جَاءَ مَنْ - دَابَّةٍ مَنْ - اَنْزَلَ - سَعَةٍ مَنْ - شَاءَ فَمَنْ - ظَلَمَ مَنْ
اَنْتُمْ - مَنْثُوْرَةٍ - نَنْجِيْ - اَنْزَلَ - اَنْسٌ - يَنْظُرُوْنَ
Note: the easy way to identify the letter of ikhfa.
The sixteen Arabic letters that remain after excluding the six letters of Izhar the six letters of idhgam and the Arabic letter baa ( ب ) are the letters of Ikhfa to pronounce and the correctly requires practice under and experienced qari ( a person who recite the quran with proper pronunciation observing all the rules relating to reading of the Quran.
3. Idhgam (ادغام):
When an Arabic letter (Horf) is to be pronounced with another letter in such a manner that both the letters are turned into a single `Mushaddad. Letter (a letter with tashdid) and this and the letter which ’Idgham’ (ادغام) is done is called Mudgham-fihi (فيه غم مد)
There are six letter of idhgam and these are:
ي - ر- م - ل - و – ن
These six letter written together becomes يَرْمَلُوْنَ (yar malun ).
Idhgam is two kinds:
A. Idhgam-e- malgunnah الغنه مع ادغام ( Idhgam with gunnah)
B. Idhgam-e- belagunnah غنه بلا ادغام ( Idhgam without gunnah)
A. IDHGAM-E- MALGUNNAH (الغنه مع ادغام) ( Idhgam with gunnah):
Out of the above mentioned six letters of idhgam ي - ر- م - ل - و - ن The following the four are together become يَرْمَلُوْنَ.
If any of one of these يَنْمُوْ (و ـ م ـ ن ـ ى )four letters comes after noon -e- sakin or tanwin then the noon-e- sakin or tanwin is to be read with gunnah. Tighter with the letter that come after it. This process of reading is called Idhgam -e- malgunnah الْغُنَّهٍ مَعَ اِدْغَامْ ( Idhgam with gunnah)
Example where the letters of idhgam have comes after the noon-e- sakin or tanwin .
يَّعْمَلْ مَنْ -- خَيْرٌوَّاَبْقَي -- لَكُمْ نَّغْفِرْ حِطَّةٌ
Note: If noon-e- sakin and Idhgam-e- malgunnah appear in the same word then there will be no idhgam . There are only four such words in the Quran and these are:
دُنْيَانٌ -- قِنْوَانٌ -- بُنْيَانٌ -- صِنْوَانٌ
In the above example the letters of Idhgam -e- malgunnah has comes after Idhgam-e- malgunnah but idhgam has not been made due to its appearance in the same words. Thisis called izhar-e- muthlaq (مُطْلَقْ اِظْهَرَ).
B. IDHGAM-E- BELAGUNNAH (غُنَّهٍ بِلَ اِدْغَامْ) ( Idhgam without gunnah):
If any of one of these ر ل two letters comes after noon-e- sakin or tanwin then the noon -e- sakin or tanwin is to be read without gunnah.tighter with the letter that comes after it. This presses of reading is called Idhgam-e- belagunnah ( Idhgam without gunnah):
Example where the letters of Idhgam-e- belagunnah ( Idhgam without gunnah): have comes after the noon -e- sakin or tanwin .
رَّبِّكُمْ مِنْ - لِلْمُتَّقِيْنَ هُدًي - لَدُنْ مِنْ
4: Iqlab (بْ اِقْلاَ):
Iqlab means to change. If the Arabic letter baa (ب) comes after noon -e- sakin or tanwin than noon -e- sakin or tanwin is to be turned into the letter meem (م) and then to be read with gunnah. This is called is iqlab ( بْ اِقْلاَ) and the the letter of baa is called baa-e- qalb .Here are some of the example where the Arabic letter baa (ب) has come after noon-e- sakin or tanwin.
بَعْدِ مِنْ -- يُنْبِتُ -- بِمَا عَلِيْمٌ
MEEM-E- SAKIN: (ساكن ميم)
The Arabic letter meem م with zojom is called Meem -e- sakin: There are three types of Meem -e- sakin. These are:
1. Ikhfa-e- shafawe: (شَفَوِي اِخْفَاءِ )
If the Arabic letter baa (ب) Comes after Meem -e- sakin then this Meem -e- sakin: is to be read with gunnah making ikhfa. This ikhfa is called Ikhfa -e- shafawi (شَفَوِي اِخْفَاءِ)
For example: بِمُوْمِنِيْنِ هُمْ وَمَا
2. Idhgam-e- mislain sager (صَغِيْرِ مِثْلَيْنِ اِدْغَامِ)
When the Arabic letter meem (م) Comes after Meem -e- sakin then this Meem -e- sakin is to be read meaning with the letter (م) Meem that comes after it and making it gunnah such as idhgam is called Idgham -e- mislain sager (صَغِيْرِ مِثْلَيْنِ اِدْغَامِ)
For example: كَسَبْتُمْ مَّا لَكُمْ
3. Izhar-e- shafawe: ( شَفَوِي اِظْهَارِ)
If after Meem -e- sakin any of the Arabic letters except baa (ب) and meem (م) Comes. Them the meem -e- sakin requires to be read clearly without gunnah. This is called Izhar -e- seafowl ( شَفَوِي اِظْهَارِ)
For example: تَرَ اَلَمْ - لِلَّهِ اَلْحَمْدُ - تَمْتَرُوْنَ - جَعَلٌوْا اَمْ
In the “Holy Quran” in two words the Arabic letter Swad (ص) is is to be pronounced as the Arabic letter seen (س).
1. In the third ruku of Surah baqarah يَبْصُطُ
2. In the ninth ruku of Surah Araf هَابَصْطَهْ
IN SURAH-E- TURE: In the word (musaitirun) مُصَيْطِرُوْن of surah-e- ture in the Quran both ص and س May be read and it is legal.
(Places of pronunciation of Arabic letter)
The word makhraj مَخْرَجْ is the plural of the word makhraj (مَخْرَجْ) which means place of coming out. Ie the places from where Arabic letters come out/ pronounced is called makhraj.
The 29 Arabic letters come out from 17 places of pronunciation/ makhraj ( مَخْرَجْ ) again the 17 makhraj have been divided into five areas (places) of pronunciation.
Name of the areas are discussed below:
Place of Pronunciation
No. of Makhraj
No. of Letters
Jowf ( جَوْف )
Halque ( حَلْق )
Example of makhraj and maqam:
Let us imagine that there are five houses in a street where there are 17 rooms. In these 17 rooms 29 people live. Now if 29 Arabic letters are compared with 29 people, 17 rooms are compared with 17 places and 5 houses are compared with 5 areas then the things can be understand easily.
THE EASY WAY TO IDENTIFY MAKHRAJ:
Before discussing in detail about makhhraj the way how to identify makhraj is being discus.To identify the makhraj of an Arabic letter is to be pronounced by giving either a jjozom or tashdid and be given a hamza with zobor and thus the place of its pronunciation will be its makhraj.
For example: اَبْ -- اَتْ -- اَثْ
NOW 17 MAKHRAJ ARE DISCUSSED SERIALLY:
This is the space inside the mouth. The three letters of madh are pronounced from it.
The three letters of madh are as follow:
A. If the Arabic letter wao (و) has sakin above it and there is pesh’ above its proceeding letter.
B. If the Arabic letter alif (ا) nothing above it and there is zabor’ above its proceeding letter.
C. If the Arabic letter yaa (ي) has sakin above it and there is zer’ above its proceeding letter.
These و ا ي Will be the letters of madh and there makhraj will be the jowf.
For example: نُوْحِيْهَا
1. From the aqsaye halq the lasst limit of throat which has touched the breast.From this makhraj the two letters ء and هَ is pronounced.
For example: اَءْ اَهْ
2. Osot -e- halque: the middle part of the throat. The two letters ح ع are pronounced from this makhraj.
For example: اَحْ اَعْ
3. Adna -e- halque: that is the upper part of the throat towards the mouth, is the makhraj of the two letters خ غ.
For example: اَخْ اَغْ
Note: the six letters which are pronounced from different parts of the throat are called harfi holqi (letters relating to throat)
If the Persian rhyme given below is committed to memory then it becomes easy to remember the six harfi holqi.
“Harfi halqi sash bound ai nur e aine hamza ha o ha o kha o aine o ghain”.
5. From oset -e- lisan that is bottom of the tongue that is the uvula or the epiglottis the Arabic letter is pronounced ق.
For example: اَقْ
In other words the uvula or the epiglottis is the makhraj o the Arabic letter ق
For example: اَقْ
6. The adjacent place of the bottom of the tongue and from the plate above it is the makhraj of the Arabic letter ك.
For example: اَكْ
7. From Osat-e-Lisaan'i.e.the middle of the tongue and the palate just above. It is the Makhraj of three Arabic letters like ش - ي – ج.
For example: اَيْ – اَشْ - اَجْ
8. From the meaning place of the either the left or the right part of the tongue and the bottom of the adrass-e- ulia I- the bottom of the chewing teeth the Arabic letter Dwad (ض) Pronounced. (This is the makhraj of the Arabic letter Dwad (ض) It is easier to Pronounce this letter from the left side. Again to pronounce this letter Dwad (ض) the tip of the tongue never become left.)
For example: اَضْ
9. From the side of the front part of the tongue and from the jaw of the upper Rubayat , anwab, and a part of the upper palate the Arabic letter laam (ل) is pronounced.
For example: اَلْ
10. This makhraj is almost like makhraj of the Arabic letter laam (ل) but not so wide. That is the teeth named Dawahik which is not related to this makhraj. From this makhraj the Arabic letter noon (ن) is pronounced.
For example: اَنْ
11. From the meeting place of the back of the front tongue and jaw of the upper sana-e- ulia the Arabic letter raa (ر) is pronounced.
For example: اَرْ
12. From the meeting place of the top of the front tongue, the bottom upper Sana-e- ulia and some part of the palate the three Arabic letters ت - د - ط are pronounced.
For example: اَتْ - اَدْ - اَطْ
13. From the meeting place of the head (top) of the tongue, and the middle part of the jaw between the sana-e- sufla and sana-e- ulia the Arabic letters ز- س - ص is Pronounced.
For example: اَزْ- اَصْ - اَسْ
14. From the meeting place of the top of the front tongue and the upper part of the two teeth named sana-e- ulia and the makhraj of the following Arabic letters ث - ذ ظ
For example: اَثْ - اَظْ - اَذْ
15. The inner part of the lower lip and the upper part of the two teeth named sana-e- ulia is the makhraj of the Arabic letter faa (ف)
For example: اَفْ
16. From within the two lips (shapatan) the three Arabic letters are pronounced. This is the makhraj of three Arabic letters wao (و) If it is not the letter of madh, baa (ب) Meem( م) Of these three letters when baa (ب )Meem ( م) Are Pronounced the two lips meet together, but when the Arabic letter wao (و) Is Pronounced. The two lips do not meet together fully.
As at the time of puffing there is a gap between the two lips, thus at the time of pronunciation the Arabic letter wao (و) there remains a gap between two lips.
The Arabic letter baa (ب) comes out from the wet part of the inner side of the two lips, while the letter meem (م) is pronounced from a bit dry external side of the two lips. Hence the Arabic letter baa (ب) is called bahri and the letter meem (م) is called barri.
17. The khaishum or the nostril is the makhraj of gunnah noon sakin or tanwin the state of idhgam-e- malgunnah and the ikhfa these letters are pronounced from the said makhraj.
MISS USE OF KHAISHUM: Kasha means flute/whistle of nose/nostril. Many people mean to prounce all the Arabic letter from Khaishum which is a sort of the Quranic practice of a Qari. (Quari means a person who pronounces the Arabic letters from its right place of pronunciation (makhraj) and recites the Quran accordingly) if it is so, then what is the necessary of discussing about seventeen makhraj in different kitabs (books).
TWO PICTURES FOR MAKHRAJ:
THE PROCEDURE/ RULES TO START RECITING THE QURAN SHORIF:
Before beginning the reciting oe the quran “aauzubillah” (اَعُوْذُبِالله ) and basmilla( اللهِ بِسْمِ) should be recite first.
Aauzubillah hi minash shaitanir rajim (الرَّجِيْمُ الشَّيْطَانِ مِنَ اَعُوْذُبِالله)
Bismillahir rahmanir rahim ( الرَّحِيْمِ الرَّحْمٌنِ الله بِسْمِ)
The Holy Quran can is reciting in four different ways.
1. Fasl-e- kul (كُلْ فَصْلِ)
2. Wasl-e- kul (كُلْ وَصْلِ)
3. Waslul awale bissani (ا بِالثَّانِيْ لْاَوَّلِ وَصْلِ )
4. Walussani bissalis (بِالثَّالِثْ الثَّانِيْ وَصْلُ)
1. FASL-E- KUL (كُلْ فَصْلِ):
To stop or to make a pause after reciting the complete aauzubillah” (اَعُوْذُبِالله ) then to take another pause after reciting bismillah (اللهِ بِسْمِ) in full and then to start reciting the verse (surah)
2. WASL-E- KUL (كُلْ صْلِو):
To recite the three together.
3. WASLUL AWALE BISSANI ( ا بِالثَّانِيْ لْاَوَّلِ وَصْلِ ):
To take a pause after reciting “aauzubillah and bismilla” together and then to start reciting.
4. WASLUSSANI BISSALIS (بِالثَّالِثْ الثَّانِيْ وَصْلُ):
To reciete aauzubillah” in full separately and then to recite bismillah” in full toghter with the verse.
RULES TO RECITING اللهِ بِسْمِ BETWEEN TWO SURAHS:
To recite Bismillah Two “Suras” i.c To recite Bismillah before a Sura after finishing one is “Mustahab “.But to recite Bismillah before “Sura Barat” is according to some ,”Haram” while in the is “makruh” .On the other hand ,some think that recite Bismillah at beginning of “Sura Barat” is “Makruh” whhe recite from the middlr is “Mustahab”.
OMISSION OF BISMILLAH AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SURAH BARAT:
“Sura Barat” doesn’t plead for safety or defense whereas Bismillah does.”Sura Barat” in actual scene, directs us to slash the “M shirks” with the sword. Therefore bismillah is not reciting this “Sura”.
Hazrat Usman (RA) started,Rasul (saw) didn’t declare ‘Sura Barat ‘ to be a distinctive‘sura’.Moreover, this ‘Sura’ is closely related to its pervious ‘Sura’ (Anfal).So these two ‘Suras’ ase possibly one single ‘Sura’ .Talking this matter into account ,”Bismillah is not written between “Sura Anfal” and”Sura Barat”,because “Bismillah” is used only to separate two “Suras”(Bukhari Sharif and other books are recommended).
RULES WHEN BEGINNING SURAH BARAT:
There are three rules to start reciting “Sura Barat” after finishing “ Sura Anfal”.The second rule is better than the first one, and the first rule is better than the second one (the first rule is the best method).The rules as follows:
1. Waqf وقف :To pause (Waqf) after finishing “Sura Anfal “ then recite “Auzubillah” and pause once again ,and then recite “Sura Barat”.
2. Wasl وصل :To start “Sura Barat” without stopping after “Sura Anfal”(“Auzubillah should not be recited ,nor should any pause be taken”).
3. Sukut سكت :To hold breath after finishing “Sura Anfal “ ( the way we perform “Saktah”) and then start reciting “Sura Barat”.
Saktah: When we hold our breath after reading a word in order to separate a letter from its neighbor.
According to some "ULAMA","SAKTAH" is a state in which we hold our breath for 2 "HARKAT".
According to Imam Hafs (Rh), Saktah is found in four (4) places of the AL- QURAN.
THERE ARE FOUR PLACES IN THE QURAN WHERE SAKTAH IS TO BE DONE:
1. In the first place in Surah Kahaf قَيِّمًا سكته عِوَجًا
2. In the second place in Surah Yaseen ا لرَّحْمَنُ هذاماوعد سكته قَدِنَا مَّرْ مِنْ
3. In the third place in Surah Qiyamah رَاقٍ سكته مَنْ وَقِيْلَ
4. In the fourth place in Surah Mutaffifeen رَانِ سكته بَلْ كَلَّا
LIST OF THE VERSE (AYAT) OF SAJDAH:
The word لَاتَاْمَنَّا , which is found in "SURAH YOUSUF" has special rulings. There are two opinions in this regard.
The first opinion:
The first "NOON" that is omitted in writing form should be concealed by half, i.e. To read it between the state of "SAKIN" and "HARKAT".
The second opinion:
To make a gesture after mixing (Idhgam) the first "NOON" with the second one,i.e. to indicate or mime a "PESH" by the two lips on the first "NOON" and then to add a "ZOBOR" on the second one
In the fourth ruku of surah-e- HUDH the zer of the letter Raa is to be pronounced with the sound between zer and zobor and this is called EMALA. So, it should be read as Majreha instead of Majreeha this is EMALA.
MISS USE OF EMALA:
Emala should be done but except in its proper place. We should not read as Al- Hamdulillah , it should not be pronounced/ read as Al - Hamdulillah it should not be Malekinnas but it should not be pronounced/ read as Malikinnass.
In the quran there is only one place where is to be done and it is in the fourth riku of Sura-e- Hudh.
For example: مَجْريْهَا اللهِ بِسْمِ Bismillahi majreha
WHEN THE ARABIC LETTER "RAA" (ر ) IS TO BE READ WITH HEAVY/THICK “PUR " SOUND.
In the following circumstances theر Arabic letter 'Raa'(ر) is to be read with heavy sound.
1. If there is 'Zobor' or 'Pesh' on the Arabic letter 'Raa'(ر) then it should be read with heavy (Pur) sound.
For example: رَزَقْنَا - رُزِقُوْ
2. If the Arabic letter 'Raa' is sakin and its proceeding letter is either with 'Zobor' or 'Pesh' above it then this 'Raa'(ر) is to be pronounced with heavy sound.
For example: قَرْيَهْ - قُرْبَانْ
3.If the Arabic letter 'Raa'(ر) becomes 'Sakin' for the cause of stopping and it's proceeding letter is either with 'Pesh' or 'Zobor' then this 'Raa'(ر) will be of heavy sound.
For example: جَاءَهُمُ لنُّذُرْ - لِلْبَشَرْ
4. If the letter 'Raa'(ر) is 'Sakin' for the cause of stopping and it's proceeding letter is also 'Sakin' and on the proceeding letter of the 'Sakin'(') letter there is either 'Zobor'(-) or 'Pesh'(,) then this letter 'Raa' is to be pronounced with heavy sound.
For example: اَلْعَصْرُ – خُضْرُ
5. If there is either ' pesh' or 'zobor' on the letter raa with 'Tashdeed' then that Raa (ر) is to be pronounced with heavy sound.
For example: اَلَّرحْمَنْ - ضَرَّ - فَفِرُّوْا
6. If in the proceeding letter of the Sakin 'Raa' (ر ) There is 'Zer' and after the Sakin Raa there comes any letter of “ Isthiala” and there is no 'Zer' to the letter of “Ishiala” then this Raa is to be pronounced with heavy sound.
For example: مِرْصَادْ - قِرْطَاسْ - فِرْقَهٌ
Note: there are seven letters of "ISHIALA": ظ -خ - ص - ض - غ - ط - ق
The seven letters written together becomes: َقِظْ صَغَطٍ خُصَّ
WHEN THE ARABIC LETTER "RAA" (ر) IS TO BE READ WITH VERY FINE/THIN SOUND (BARIK).
1. IF THERE IS "Zer" under Raa (ر ) then it is to be pronounced with a very fine/thin sound.
For example: رِزْقٌ - رِجَالٌ - رِزْقًا
2. If the arabic letter "Raa" (ر ) is Sakin (without any vowel sign) and is proceeding letter is with "Zer" under it, such a letter "Raa" (ر ) it is to be pronounced with a very fine/thin sound.
For example: فِرْعٌوْنُ
3. If "Raa" (ر) becomes Sakin and its proceeding letter is Sakin "Ya" (ي) then this "Raa" is to be pronounced with heavy sound. If the proceeding letters of Sakin "Ya" (ي) is with "Zobor" then this "Raa" is to be pronounced thinly.
For example: خَيْرٌ - قَدِيْرٌ